crop yield
The yield from plants in a single growing season






economy of scale
The saving in cost of production that is due to mass production






The belief that certain persons or members of certain classes or groups deserve favored treatment by virtue of their perceived superiority.






A column in a database






A foot-candle (sometimes designated footcandle; abbreviated fc, or ft-c) is a unit of illuminance or light intensity defined as the illuminance measured on a surface one foot from a uniform point source of light equal to the light of one candle. This can be thought of as the amount of light that actually falls on a given surface. The foot-candle is equal to one lumen per square foot.

The calculator below will compute foot-candles from a bare bulb hanging in dead space when you enter the lumens of the source and the distance in feet from the center of the lamp to the object being lit. Dead space is much different than a garden space using a reflector to focus light, and the theoretic point source used in computations is much smaller than the actual dimensions of real-world bulbs, so this should serve only as an example of how light and distance interact. Use at your own discretion.

Enter lumen rating of lamp
Enter distance in feet from the center of the lamp
Calculate Foot-candles (no reflector or reflected light)

fc in dead space is computed using 1 sq ft from the surface area of a
sphere, the radius of which is the distance you entered. Entering a
distance below 0.29 feet (appx 3.5 inches) causes all the light to fall
on a sphere that has less than one square foot of surface area, thus
foot-candle values start to exceed the lamp's lumen output.






Inverse Square Law for light intensity
I=L/D2 (Intensity = Light source output ÷ Distance squared)

When the distance to a light source is doubled the observed intensity is decreased to 1/4 of its original value. For example, 5000 foot-candles at one foot is reduced to 1250 at two feet. However, a lamp placed in a reflective fixture designed to focus or distribute light over a given area will help reduce the extent of the loss.






Removing a small number of extreme reports (called ‘outliers’) is a widely accepted, even recommended, procedure in a statistical analysis. Because we are developing a model that is intended to reflect the experiences of, and be useful for, the vast majority of growers, we exclude a handful of extreme reports from the analysis. This is because we have a limited sample of reports available for analysis; thus, our overall results could be distorted significantly by just a few extreme reports.

In some cases, an excluded report had an extremely low crop yield, given the growing conditions, amount of light, etc. (Some of the extremely low-yielding reports may reflect some sort of unusual disaster in the grow room, but this is not always clear.) In other cases, the report had an extremely high crop yield, given the growing conditions.






Photosynthesis is the process by which a plant uses the energy from light to produce its own food. Respiration uses food created by photosynthesis.






Sea Of Green (SOG)
A growing method using many small plants as opposed to using few large ones.






hard knocks
The practical experiences of life, including hardships and disappointments.






A term used to describe detached plant material that ends up at the bottom of a storage container. The powdery or dust-like consistency is usually the result of overhandling and/or overdrying.






yield density
Another way of describing yield per square foot. A denser yield often has more esthetic value placed on it by some growers due to the longer, wider and heavier buds (colas) typically found in canopies producing more grams per square foot.






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